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A Study and Report on Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Over KAP Assessment Regarding Self Screening of Breast and Gynecological Cancers Among Women–A Community-Based Study Aiming Towards Healthy Women in India

Mekkanti Manasa Rekha, Khatija Khanum, Rinku Mathappan


The present study involves a deeper understanding and Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) study of Indian women with regards to their gynecological health, with gynecological cancer awareness and prevention of breast, cervical and endometrial cancer being the main focus. This KAP survey was a quantitative method that provides access to quantitative and qualitative information. KAP surveys reveal misconceptions or misunderstandings that may represent obstacles to the activities that we would like to implement and potential barriers to behavior change. The present study was based on providing questionnaires related to women health and hygiene practices, including information leaflets, self-diagnosis and awareness of gynecological and breast cancers. The main initiative of conducting the present research was to create awareness among illiterate women, breaking the barriers that surround women’s gynecological health, eradicating taboos associated with gynecological health-related problems by encouraging effective communication between women and healthcare providers. When it comes to cancer, early detection of cancer by recognizing the warning signs with the help of awareness programmes is proven to be highly effective in its treatment and cure therefore, decreasing the mortality rate drastically. Proper counseling regarding the topic not only increases the knowledge of unaware women but also encourages them to undergo diagnostic processes, incorporate self-screening routines and improve their quality of life. The present research involved a group of 150 women participants who took part in the survey conducted by answering a simple questionnaire to assess their knowledge on the topic; furthermore individual counseling sessions were conducted to create awareness in prevention of gynecological cancers. The age-wise female population ranged from 15 women (10%) belonging to the age group of 10–20 years;26 women (17.3%) were in the age group of 21–30 years; 32 women (21.3%) were in the age group of 31–40 years; 36 women (24%) were in the age group of 41–50 years; 28 women (18.66%) were in the age group of 51–60 years; 10 women (6.66%) were in the age group of 61–70 years; three women were in the age group of 71–80 years which made up the 2% of the remaining population; zero women (0%) were involved in the age group of 81–90 years. Literacy-wise distribution of the participants showed that out of the 150 participants, 38 women (25.4%) were literates and 112 women (74.6%) were illiterates. Personal behavior-wise distribution of the study population indicated that 20 women (13.4%) were into the habit of smoking and 35 (23.4%) women indulged in consuming alcohol. The remaining population of 95 women (63.2%) were nonsmokers and did not consume alcohol. The reasons women avoided regular check-ups on gynecological health were reported as 98 women (65.4%) avoided the testing due to lack of awareness, 22 women (14.6%) avoided tests due to financial straining, 13 women (8.6%) avoided screening due to taboos around women health, 12 women (8%) avoided due to the fear of being diagnosed, five women (3.4%) were simply not interested in the diagnosis. Out of 150 women, the number of women who were encouraged to undergo Pap smear test, mammography, diagnostic test for cervical cancer, breast cancer and uterine cancer after counseling were 146 women (97.3%). Four women (2.7%) were not willing to undergo Pap smear test. Number of female population that was aware about breast self examination and practice showed that 127 women (84.6%) were not aware about breast self examination practice, 23 women (15.4%) were aware about breast self examination but not practicing, 0% women were aware and practicing. Number of women who were encouraged to take HPV vaccine was also studied and it was found that 142 women (94.6%) were willing to take the vaccine. Eight women did not want to take the vaccine due to financial straining and cost of the vaccine. When the number of women who were encouraged to perform breast self examination after counseling were studied, it was found that 150 out of 150 women were willing to perform BSE regularly and record their observation, indicating 100% accuracy in understanding and awareness on breast cancer. Four women (2.6%) out of 150 women came across as suspected cases for having a chance of developing gynecological cancer. Six (4%) out of 150 women were aware about endometrial cancer, 144 (96%) out of 150 women were new to the topic of endometrial cancer. About 10 (6.6%) out of 150 women thought that gynecological cancer can be prevented; 140 (93.3%) out of 150 women thought it cannot be prevented. The conclusion drawn from the above survey clearly stated that there is an immediate need for awareness and education on gynecological health amongst women in India. 


gynecological cancer, cancer awareness, early diagnosis and treatment, KAP studies, self screening, breast self examination

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