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Spatial Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Groundwater of a Condensed Agricultural Area in Punjab (India)

Sharanpreet Singh, Siby John


Modern agricultural practices involve an increased use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. An experimental protocol to monitor the presence of pesticide residues in groundwater of Sangrur, Punjab (India), an intense agricultural area, was undertaken as part of the study. Liquid–liquid extraction followed by gas chromatographic detection was used for the determination of pesticide residues. It was found that 63.1% of the groundwater samples were contaminated with organophosphorous pesticides. It also, showed that the groundwater samples contained residues of chlorpyrifos, Ethion, Buprofezin, cypermethrin and Monocrotophos. Spatial variation maps were developed using ArcGIS. The health risk index calculated for both ingestion and dermal routes indicated a medium risk at the moment. However, the long term effects of the pesticides residue in groundwater need to be assessed.


Pesticides, Groundwater, GIS, Health risk, Punjab

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