Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Employing Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Floodplain mapping with applications of HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, and ArcGIS : A Review

Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade, Ashwini P., Sachin Panhalkar, Vedashree Sameer Kulkarni, Aishwarya Pramod Hingmire


Disasters caused by climate change have wreaked havoc on the environment around the world in recent decades, to the point that even deserts have been flooded. Considering floods as a major disaster across various countries, this research has accumulated different methodologies and techniques to analyze flood mapping according to geography of many regions across the world. This paper discusses about flood plain mapping and analysis of the past two decades. Recently with the help of satellite images and the application of remote sensing and GIS this concept is widely used by various researchers. To simulate these flood plain areas, software such as HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS and ArcGIS are quite popular and widely used. The purpose of this review article is to divide the research into four primary sections: floodplain mapping, analytic method, digital elevation model, and software used.. It was observed that globally according to site and climate conditions the effect of floods changes geographically and as a result, the approaches and techniques employed by various researchers differ from one location to the next and according to their research goals. As a consequence, gaps have been identified, and the authors have applied strategies to tackle their problem. This document serves as an overview of the research's important literature review

Full Text:



Muhammad Shahzad Khattak et al. “Floodplain Mapping Using HEC-RAS and ArcGIS: A Case Study of Kabul River”. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 2016; 41: 1375-1390.

Anjusha K.K. “Flood Inundation Modeling using ArcGIS and HEC-RAS of Godavari Reach, Nanded District.”, United International Journal for Research and Technology. 2021; 02(07): 133-139.

Hunegnaw Desalegn, Arega Mulu. “Mapping flood inundation areas using GIS and HEC-RAS model at Fetam River, Upper Abbay Basin, Ethiopia”. Scientific African. July 2021; 12.

Omid Rahmati. “Flood Hazard Zoning in Yasooj Region, Iran, using GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis”, Geomatics, Natural Hazard and Risk. 2016; 7(3): 1000-1017.

Kyu Kyu Sein, Thida Myint “Flood Hazard Mapping using Hydraulic Model and GIS: A Case Study in Mandalay City, Myanmar”, Suan Sunandha Science and Technology Journal. 2016; 3(1).

Atallah M., Hazzab A., Seddini A., et, al. “Inundation maps for extreme flood events: Case study of Sidi Bel Abbes city, Algeria”. Journal of Water and Land Development”. 2018; 37:19-27.

C. Ben Khalfallah and S. Saidi. “Spatiotemporal Floodplain mapping and Prediction using HEC-RAS - GIS Tools: Case of the Majerda River, Tunisia”. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2018; 142: 44-51.

Kheira Yamani, Abdelkrim Hazzab, Mohamed Sekkoum, Toumi Slimane. “Mapping of vulnerability of flooded area in arid region. Case study: area of Ghardaı¨a-Algeria”, Modeling earth systems and environment. August,2016; 2(147).

Dibit Aryal, Lei Wang, Tirtha R. et, al. "A Model-Based Flood Hazard Mapping on the Southern Slope of Himalaya". Water. 2020; 12(2).

Abhijit Sathya, Santosh G Thampi. “Flood Inundation Mapping of Cauvery River using HEC-RAS and ArcGIS”. Advances in Civil Engineering, Lectures Notes in Civil Engineering. September 2020; 83: 15-23.

Zhang Yongqiang. “Using Lidar-DEM based rapid flood inundation modeling framework to map floodplain inundation extent and depth”, Journal of Geographic Sciences. 2020; 30(10): 1649-1663.

Vinay Ashok Rangari, V. Sridhar, N.V. Umamahesh, Ajey Kumar Patel. “Floodplain Mapping and Management of Urban catchment using Hec-Ras: A case study of Hyderabad City”, Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India). 2018; 100(4): 49-63.

Muhammad Al-Zahrani, Ahmed Al-Areeq & Hatim O. Sharif. “Estimating urban flooding potential near the outlet of an arid catchment in Saudi Arabia” Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk. November 2016; 8(2): 672-688.

Ernieza Suhana Mokhtar, Biswajeet Pradhan, Abd Halim Ghazali, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri. “Assessing flood inundation mapping through estimated discharge using GIS and HEC-RAS model”, Arabian Journal of Geosciences. November 2018; 11(21).

Dhruvesh P. Patel, Jorge A. Ramirez, Prashant K. Srivastava, et, al. “Assessment of flood inundation mapping of Surat city by coupled 1D/2D hydrodynamic modeling: a case application of the new HEC-RAS 5”. Natural Hazards. June 2017; 89(1): 93-130.

Sofia Melo Vasconcellos & Masato Kobiyama1 & Fernanda Stachowski Dagostin & Claudia Weber Corseuil & Vinicius Santana Castiglio. “Flood Hazard Mapping in Alluvial Fans with Computational Modeling”. Water Resources Management. March 2021; 35(5): 1463-1478.

A. Bozza, A. Durand, G. Confortola, et, al. “Potential of remote sensing and open street data for flood mapping in poorly gauged areas: a case study in Gonaives, Haiti”. Applied Geomatics. February 2016; 8(2): 117-131.

R. Bharath, Amin Elshorbagy. “Flood mapping under uncertainty: a case study in the Canadian prairies”, Natural Hazards. July 2018; 94(2): 537-560.

Amit Kumar Saha, Sonam Agrawal, “Mapping and assessment of floodrisk in Prayagraj district, India: A GIS and remote sensing study.”, Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering. May 2020; 5(2).

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand (2015), “Floodplain Mapping using HEC-RAS and GIS in Nam Phong River Basin, Thailand”, International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development. 2015; 6(1): 153-158.

Ai-Di Huo, Wen-Ke Guan, Jian Dang, et, al. “Submerged area of typical torrential flood and debris-flow disasters in Mengzong Gully, China”. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 2016; 7(1): 18-24.

Dang Thanh Mai, Florimond De Smedt. “A Combined Hydrological and Hydraulic Model for Flood Prediction in Vietnam Applied to the Huong River Basin as a Test Case Study”. Water. 2017; 9(879).

Eric C. Tate, David R. Maidment, Francisco Olivera, David J. Anderson. “Creating a Terrain Model for Floodplain Mapping”, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. March 2002; 7(2): 100-108.

Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade, Harshal Pathak, Sachin Panhalkar, Vedashree Sameer Kulkarni, Aishwarya Pramod Hingmire (2022): “Review Paper for Floodplain Mapping with Applications of HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, and ArcGIS Softwares – A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach “, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET). June 2022; 9(6): 812-826.

Shweta Panaskar, Sachin Bhere, Karthik Nagarajan, and Raju Narwade. “Validating the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Terrestrial Water Storage Dataset using Terra MODIS NDVI Anomaly”. Water Resource Engineering and Management. May 2022; 9 (1):19-28.

Sahil Waquar Khan, Karthik Nagarajan, and Raju Narwade. “Risk assessment and challenges faced in repairs and rehabilitation of dilapidated buildings “, Journal of Rehabilitation in Civil Engineering (JRCE). January 2022; 10(2) Serial No 26, Spring 2022: 93-112.

Mit J Kotecha,Karthik Nagarajan, Shruti Kanga,et, al. “Analysis of Urban Heat Island Effect in Rajkot City Using Geospatial Techniques“, Geospatial Technology for Landscape and Environmental Management. January 2022; 10(2){ Serial No 26}: 351-370.

Vishal Ambad, Karthik Nagarajan and Raju Narwade. “Impact of controlled permeable formwork liner against chloride penetration on the concrete structures “,Journal of Research on Engineering Structures and Materials (JRESM). November 2021; 8(1): 117-126.

Amit Kumar Sharma, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “Development of Solar Concentrator studded with Optical Fiber for Day lighting“,International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. November 2021; 11(11): 527-541.

Rajnish Singh, Karthik Nagarajan and Raju Narwade. “Analysis of Labour Productivity and Determining the Parameters Which Affects it in Aluminum Formwork System, “International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE). October 2021; 10 (12): 16-23.

M. P. Suryawanshi, Karthik Nagaraja, Raju Narwade. “Optimisation of Cost in Ground Improvement for Upcoming Navi Mumbai International Airport “, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT). August 2021; 10(06): 174-181.

Pranav Andhyal, Karthik Nagarajan and Raju Narwade. “Applications of 5D CAD for Billing in Construction using G.I.S. “, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE). May-2021; 10(07): 74-82.

Sonali Kadu, Karthik Nagarajan and Raju Narwade(2021): “Impacting the Timeline of Railway Project Using Relative Importance Index Method (RII), and Important Index (IMPI) “,Strad Research. July-2021;08 (07): 138-148.

Divyashree Yadav, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade, et, al. “Automatic Urban Road Extraction from High-Resolution Satellite Data Using Object-Based Image Analysis: A Fuzzy Classification Approach”, Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS. Decemeber-2020; 09(4): 1-8.

Chirag Dhoble, Sanskruti Pashte, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “Pressure based Air Purification Lamp for Multifunctioning Purpose”. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)". August 2020; 7(8): 2471-2479.

Dhondabai S Narayankar, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “Soil Erosion Modelling using RUSLE and GIS of Dehrang Dam Watershed, Panvel, District Raigad, Maharashtra” GIS Science Journal (GSJ) June 2020; 7(6): 732-743.

Shrenik Shah, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade and (2020): "Assessment Of Urban Utilities For Mumbai City Using 3d Modeling Techniques", International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET). May 2020; 11(5).

Tanvi Nijampurkar, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. "Analysis of Sedimentation Deposition in Morbe Reservoir by Using RS and GIS", Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS, (April 2020; 11(01): 16-24.

Akshata Mestry, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “Estimation of Water Balance components of Watersheds in the Manjira River Basin Using Swat Model and GIS", International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT). 2020; 9(3): 3898- 3907.

Panaskar S, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “Analysis of Changes in LULC of Western Ghat by Comparing NDVI and NDWI”. Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS. December 2019; 08(04): 01-07.

Arya Vijayan, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “Real-Time Water Leakage Monitoring System Using IoT Based Architecture”. International Journal for Research in Engineering Application & Management (IJREAM). November 2019; 05(08): 24-30.

Vivek Kumar, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “Determination of Water Budget of the Lower Godavari River Basin Using GIS and SWAT “ International Journal for Research in Engineering Application & Management (IJREAM). October 2019; 05(07): 41-47.

Priyanka S. Bhatkar, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “A Case Study on Impact of Tar-Ball Pollution on the Beaches of Alibaug (Maharashtra)”. i-manager Journal of Civil Engineering. August 2019; 9(3): 50-58.

Biradar Shilpa, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade, Gayatri Deshpande. “E-Waste: An Alternative to Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate in Concrete”. International Journal Of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). July-2019; 08(07): 993-999.

Chowdary Mohanlal, Karthik Nagarajan, RajuNarwade. “Applications of 4D GIS Model in Construction Management “, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE). July-2019; 8(9): 2597-2608.

Chhaya Zende, Karthik Nagarajan, RajuNarwade. “Manufacturing Techniques of Sustainable Recyclable Formwork By A Smart Material Waste Composite Material (WCM) for Infrastructural Projects of Future Cities - A Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Initiative “, International Journal of Management, Technology And Engineering (IJMTE). June-2019; 9(6): 666-671

Mahesh S. Singh, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade, Tejaswini D. N. “Factors affecting the labor productivity of brickwork and analyzing them using RII method “ International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration, (IJATEE). May-2019; 06(54): 143-151.

Reshma Kamble, Karthik Nagarajan, Raju Narwade. “Water Distribution Network Analysis for A Sawale Village Near Rasayani With Application of Epanet Software - A GIS Approach”. International Journal of Management, Technology And Engineering (IJMTE). May-2019; 9(2): 3196-3202.

Sanika Kandalekar, Karthik Nagarajan, RajuNarwade. “Feasibility of Pervious Concrete Pavement: A Case Study of Karanjade Node, Panvel”. SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering ( SSRG-IJCE )". March-2019; 6(3): 35-40.

Pradhnya Patil, Karthik Nagarajan, RajuNarwade. “Effect of Marble Powder and PVA Fibres on the Strength and Microstructure of Engineered Cementitious Composite by using Non-Destructive Test “ SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering ( SSRG-IJCE )". March-2019; 6(3): 51-57.

Pallavi Patil, Karthik Nagarajan, RajuNarwade. “ Resource Management of Infrastructural Project for Future Cities: A Re Modified Minimum Moment method “ International Journal of Management, Technology And Engineering (IJMTE). February 2019; 9(2): 1094-109.

Shobana Jadhav, Karthik Nagarajan, RajuNarwade. “Best Feasible Transportation Route Analysis for Delivering Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) - A Geographic Information System (GIS) Approach”. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)". February 2019; 6(2): 2401-240.

Aditya Shatri, Karthik Nagarajan, RajuNarwade. “Integrated Land-Use Zoning, Using Topographical Data: Optimizing Vacant Space For Urbanization At Akole Taluka, Maharashtra, India”. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET). January-February 2019; 10(1): 188-199.

Mihir Patilhande, Karthik Nagarajan, Siddhesh Satere, Pulkit Gupta. “Rehabilitation and Cost-Effective house for Sustainable Rural Development - A Case Study of Landslide affected Dasgaon village in Maharashtra” International Journal of Engineering Research in Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IJERMCE). April 2017; 2(4): 25-31.

Sunilkumar Patel, Karthik Nagarajan, RajuNarwade. “Sustainable Smart Blue Roof Network System with the application of Geographic Information System (GIS)” . International Journal of Engineering Research in Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IJERMCE). March 2017; 2(3): 423-428.

Karthik Nagarajan, Shrikant Charhate. "Smart Modal Analysis of Multistoried Building Considering the Effect of Infill Walls". International Journal of Global Technology Initiatives (IJGTI). March 2016; 5(1):C20-C27.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

eISSN: 2230-7990