Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Refrigerant and the Environment- issues and planning for the future-A study

Devendra Kumar Joshi



However, the halogenated refrigerants have undesirable environmental impacts such as ozone layer depletion potential and global warming. Hence, it is necessary to go for alternative refrigerants to satisfy the objectives of the international protocols. Future international commitments on the protection of the environment, particularly for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and better protection of the ozone layer by use of other suitably refrigerants. In this context, the use of "natural" refrigerants (air, carbon dioxide or ammonia) becomes a possible solution.

This paper reviews study of redeploying these natural refrigerants as an alternative solution to replace halogenated refrigerants. Few steps are also studied like change in system equipment compressor, heat exchanger, reduction in refrigerant charge and operating procedures.


: Refrigerants, ozone layer depletion, global warming Montreal 1987, Kyoto 1997 Protocols,

Full Text:



Molina, M.J. and Rowland, F.S “Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethane

Chlorine atom catalyzed destruction of ozone”, Nature, 249 (5460). 810-812. Jun.1974.

United Nations (UN). Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer.

New York, NY, USA, 1997.

Hrnjak, P.S, Developments in Charge Reduction and Microchannel Technology-

Mass Flux as a Way to Affect Void Fraction –Charge,

nd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction, KTH,

Stockholm, June 16- 17, 2010.

Hrnjak, P.S. and Litch A. D. Micro channel Heat Exchangers for Charge

Minimization in Air-Cooled Ammonia Condensers and Chillers,

International Journal of Refrigeration (2008), Vol 31, No: 4, pp 658-668.

. Park, K.J. and Jung, D.S, Thermodynamic performance of R502 alternative

Refrigerant mixtures for low temperature and transport applications,

Energy Conversion and Management (2007) Vol48 no (12),pp 3084–3089.

. Dalkilic,A.S. and Wongwises,S., , A performance comparison of vapour-

Compression refrigeration system using various alternative refrigerants.

International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer (2010), Vol37, pp 1340-1349.

. Hammed, M.A. and Alsaad, M.A., , The use of hydrocarbon mixtures as refrigerants

In domestic refrigerators,

Applied Thermal Engineering, (1999) Vol 19, pp 1181–1189.

. Saito T., Research and development of systems with natural working fluids in Japan. IEA

Annex 22 Workshop on Compression Systems with Natural Working Fluids,

Trondheim, Norway (1995).

. Granryd E., Research and development of systems with natural working fluids in Sweden. IEA Annex 22 Workshop on Compression Systems with Natural Working Fluids,

Trondheim, Norway (1995).

ASHRAE 2013 Handbook–Fundamentals, Chapter 29, Table 8, ASHRAE, Atlanta, Ga

. Thevenot R. A History of Refrigeration throughout the World,

International Institute of Refrigeration, Paris (1979)

Biederman, B.P., Mulugeta,, Cycle Analysis and Turbo Compressor Sizing with

Ketone C6F as Working Fluid for Water-Cooled Chiller Applications,

International Compressor Engineering Conference at Purdue(2004).

Gunda Mader, Georg P.F. Fosel,, Comparison Of The Transient Behavior Of Micro

Channel And Fin-And-Tube Evaporators ,

International Journal of Refrigeration, 34 (2011 ) pp 222- 229

ZHANG Huiyong, LI Junming,, Numerical Simulations of a Micro-Channel Wall-

Tube Condenser for Domestic Refrigerators,

Tsinghua Science and Technology .ISSNll1007-0214ll09/16l lpp426-433 Volume 15,

Number 4, August 2010

Milnes P. Hydraulic and thermal characteristics of a vapor venting two-

Phase micro channel heat exchanger.

International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer. Vol 54, (2011) pp5504-5516.

. California Public Utilities Commission. “Analysis to Update Energy Efficiency

Potential, Goals and Targets for 2013 and Beyond.” Consulting 2011

] Castellon, C., M. Medrano, “Use of Micro encapsulated Phase Change Materials in Building Applications.” Proceedings of Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings X International Conference. Clearwater, Florida. 2007.



  • There are currently no refbacks.