Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

BIOCHEMICAL AND KINETICS STUDIES ON PROTEASE ENZYME ISOLATED FROM AYURVEDIC HERBS ALONG WITH THEIR APPLICATION STUDIES

MANSI AGRAWAL

Abstract


 The objective of the present work was to conduct comprehensive biochemical and kinetic analysis of a protease enzyme extracted from two Ayurvedic herbs, namely Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus prostratus) and Mulethi (Glycyrrhiza glabra). The primary focus was to characterize various biochemical aspects of the enzyme, encompassing substrate specificity, optimal pH and temperature conditions, stability, and activation energy. Furthermore, crucial kinetic parameters such as Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum reaction velocity (Vmax) were determined, aiming to gain insights into the catalytic efficiency and performance of the enzyme. The protease enzyme was successfully isolated and purified from Shankhpushpi and Mulethi herbs, followed by biochemical analysis. The present study provided essential insights into the biochemical nature and kinetics of this protease enzyme derived from Ayurvedic herbs. Understanding these properties is fundamental for potential applications in industries related to protein degradation, enzymatic therapy, and dietary supplements. Further research in this area could explore and harness the full potential of these Ayurvedic herbs and their enzymes for broader biotechnological and biomedical applications. On the commercial basis, 60% of protease enzymes are there in the markets and it is also involved in major industries such as pharmaceutical and medical, food, textile, detergent, and leather. The protease enzymes from plant sources needs to be focus on the biochemical activity and kinetic characteristics such as time course, enzyme concentration, temperature optima, pH optima, temperature stability and pH stability, substrate concentration, activation energy, and temperature coefficient. The present work mainly focused on analyzing the biochemical activity of proteolytic enzymes of two Ayurvedic herbs.


Keywords


Protease enzyme, Ayurvedic herbs, Biochemical analysis, Kinetic parameters, Biomedical applications.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdel-Razek A, Selim SA, El-Hefnawy HM. Cinnamon extract abrogates cerebral ischemia- reperfusion injury via activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in rats. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2023; 14(2): 302–310p.

Arung ET, Matsubara E, Kusuma IW, Sukaton E, Shimizu K, Kondo R. Inhibitory components from the buds of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) on melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells. Fitoterapia. 2011; 82(2): 198–202p.

Podar K, C Anderson K. Emerging therapies targeting tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and other hematologic and solid malignancies. Current Cancer Drug Targets. 2011; 11(9): 1005–1024p.

Folkman J. Angiogenesis: an organizing principle for drug discovery?. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2007; 6(4): 273–286p.

Panzeri P, Testoni C. Renal immunology and pathology. Kidney Int. 2001; 59: 1520–1528p.

Hedstrom L. Serine protease mechanism and specificity. Chemical Reviews. 2002; 102(12): 4501–4524p.

Jain D, Janmeda P. Exposure, formation, and various available treatments to combat hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review. The Applied Biology & Chemistry Journal (TABCJ). 2023; 4(2): 69–83p.

Jain RK, Duda DG, Clark JW, Loeffler JS. Lessons from phase III clinical trials on anti-VEGF therapy for cancer. Nature Clinical Practice Oncology. 2006; 3(1): 24–40p.

Khan AR, James MN. Molecular mechanisms for the conversion of zymogens to active proteolytic enzymes. Protein Science. 1998; 7(4): 815–836p.

Kumar A, Grover S, Sharma J, Batish VK. Chymosin and other milk coagulants: Sources and biotechnological interventions. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 2010; 30(4): 243–258p.

Lakshmi T, Sujatha A. Evaluation of antiangiogenic potential of clove oil in a CAM assay. J Nat Remedies. 2023; 23(2): 45–51p.

Liu H, Hu M, Wang Q, Cheng L, Zhang Z. Role of papain-like cysteine proteases in plant development. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2018; 9: 1717p.

Lourenço SC, Moldão-Martins M, Alves VD. Antioxidants of natural plant origins: From sources to food industry applications. Molecules. 2019; 24(22): 4132p.

Mahajan R, Chaudhari G, Chopadaa M. Report on biotechnological applications of proteolytic enzymes from lattices of euphorbian plants. Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports. 2015; 2(4): 33–37p.

Mamboya EA, Amri E. Papain, a plant enzyme of biological importance: A review. Am J Biochem Biotechnol. 2012; 8(2): 99–104p.

Mansfeld J. Metalloproteases. In: Industrial Enzymes: Structure, Function and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. 221–242p.

Marino-Puertas L, Goulas T, Gomis-Rüth FX. Matrix metalloproteinases outside vertebrates. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research. 2017; 1864(11): 2026–2035p.

Mohd Azmi SI, Kumar P, Sharma N, Sazili AQ, Lee SJ, Ismail-Fitry MR. Application of Plant Proteases in Meat Tenderization: Recent Trends and Future Prospects. Foods. 2023; 12(6): 1336p.

Mutlu A, Gal S. Plant aspartic proteinases: enzymes on the way to a function. Physiologia Plantarum. 1999; 105(3): 569–576p.

Neurath H. Evolution of proteolytic enzymes. Science. 1984; 224(4647): 350–357p.

Neurath H. The versatility of proteolytic enzymes. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 1986; 32(1): 35–49p.

Otto HH, Schirmeister T. Cysteine proteases and their inhibitors. Chemical Reviews. 1997; 97(1): 133–172p.

Ou K, Liu Y, Zhang L, Yang X, Huang Z, Nout MR, Liang J. Effect of neutrase, alcalase, and papain hydrolysis of whey protein concentrates on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010; 58(8): 4894–4900p.

Özcan MM, Arslan D. Antioxidant effect of essential oils of rosemary, clove and cinnamon on hazelnut and poppy oils. Food Chemistry. 2011; 129(1): 171–174p.

Powers JC, Asgian JL, Ekici ÖD, James KE. Irreversible inhibitors of serine, cysteine, and threonine proteases. Chemical Reviews. 2002; 102(12): 4639–4750p.

Radłowski M. Proteolytic enzymes from generative organs of flowering plants (Angiospermae). Journal of Applied Genetics. 2005; 46(3): 247–257p.

Ragab MM, Othman H, Hassabo AG. Various Extraction Methods of Different Enzymes and their Potential Applications in Various Industrial Sector (a review). Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 2022; 65(10): 495 508p.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.37591/(rrjobt).v13i3.1477

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2023 Research & Reviews: A Journal of Biotechnology