Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Urban Expansion and Transforming Land use in Urban Centers of Ranikhet Tehsil, Uttarakhand

Naresh Chandra Pant, Arvind Singh Yadav, Meenaxi .


Urban sprawl is increasing rapidly with the increased rate of rural to urban migration and with the tremendous population growth. Due to rural-urban migration and continuous population growth; urban centers tend to expand outwards to lodge the ever-increasing population pressure. Urban sprawl has to be considered in spatio-temporal terms to understand the phenomena of urban growth, land use and land transformation.  Urban sprawl is momentous to the quality of life of urban dwellers as well as quantity of rural land lost and land degradation; key issues of agricultural as well as environmental perspectives. Himalayan state of Uttarakhand is witnessing steady and continuous urban growth. Urban sprawl in Ranikhet tehsil has resulted in loss of productive agricultural land of the surrounding rural areas, open green spaces, loss of surface water bodies, and depletion of groundwater too. Problems of dwellings, slums, and unhygienic livings are also growing rapidly with the rapid urban sprawl. There is regular competition between urban and rural areas for land needed for growth and development.  The present study finds out that the built-up areas of different towns of Ranikhet tehsil have been increased from 4.92km2 in 2000 to 6.19km2 in 2010 which has further been increased to 7.70km2 in 2020 witnesses a continuous struggle for space in Ranikhet tehsil.

Full Text:



Barnes, K. B., Morgan III J. M., Roberge M C., and Lowe S, (2001). “Sprawl development: Its patterns, consequences, and measurement”, Towson University.

Batty, M. (2008). The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science, 319: 769–771.

Bhatta, B. (2009). Analysis of urban growth pattern using remote sensing and GIS: a case study of Kolkata, India. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2009, Vol. 30, No. 18, 4733–4746. Available at: (doi: 10.1080/01431160802651967).

Chen, J, Gong, P., He, C. et al. (2002). Assessment of urban development plan of Beijing by using CA-based urban growth model. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens, 68: 1063–1071.

Doygun, H. (2009). Effects of urban sprawl on agricultural land: A case study of Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess, 158: 471–478.

Ferreira, J. A., Condessa, B., Almeida, J. C., et al. (2010). Urban settlement delimitation in low-density areas- An application to the municipality of Tomar (Portugal). Landscape Urban Plan, 97: 156–167.

Gong, P., Liang, S., Carlton, E., et al. (2012). Urbanization and health in China. Lancet, 379: 843–852

Griffiths, P., Hostert, P. Gruebner O., and S. Linden Vander, (2010). Mapping Megacity Growth with Multi-Sensor Data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 114, 426-439.

Guindon, B., Zhang, Y., and Dillabaugh, C. (2004). Landsat Urban Mapping Based on a Combined Spectral-Spatial Methodology", Remote Sensing of Environment, 92, 218-232.

Guneralp, B., Seto, K. C. (2008). Environmental impacts of urban growth from an integrated dynamic perspective: A case study of Shenzhen, South China. Global Environ Chang, 18: 720–735

Hosseini, S.A., Shahraki, S.Z., Farhudi, R., et al. (2010). Effect of urban sprawl on a traditional water system in the city of Mashhad, NE Iran. Urban Water J., 7: 309–320.

Jacquin, A., Misaova, L., and Gay, M., (2008). A Hybrid Object-based Classification Approach for Mapping Urban Sprawl in Peri- urban Environment, Landscape and Urban Planning, 84, 152-165.

Jin, M., Dickinson, R. E., Zhang, D. L., et al. (2005). The footprint of urban areas on global climate as characterized by MODIS. J Clim, 18: 1551–1565.

Liu, J. Y., Zhan, J. Y., Deng, X. Z. (2005). Spatiotemporal patterns and driving factors of urban land expansion in China during the economic reform era, Ambio, 2005, 34: 450–455.

Lu, D. S., Xu, X. F., Tian, H. Q., et al. (2010). The effects of urbanization on net primary productivity in southeastern China. Environ Manage, 46.

Masek, J. G., Lindsay, F. E. and Goward, S. N. (2000). Dynamics of Urban Growth in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, 1973-1996, from Landsat observations, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 18, 3473-3486.

Pham, H. M., Yamaguchi, Y. (2011). Urban growth and change analysis using remote sensing and spatial metrics from 1975 to 2003 for Hanoi, Vietnam. Int J Remote Sens, 32: 1901–1915.

Seto, K. C., Kaufmann, R. K., Woodcock, C. E., et al. (2000). Landsat reveals China’s farmland reserves, but they are vanishing fast. Nature, 406-121.

Su, S. L., Jiang, Z. L., Zhang, Q., et al. (2011). Transformation of agricultural landscapes under rapid urbanization: A threat to sustainability in Hang-Jia-Hu region, China. Appl Geogr, 31: 439–449.

Sudhira, H. S., Ramachandra, T. V., and Jagadish, K. S. (2004). Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modeling using GIS. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 5(1), 29–39. Available at: (doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2003.08.002).

Sudhira, H.S., Ramachandra, T.V., Raj, K. S., and Jagadish, K.S. (2003). Urban Growth Analysis Using Spatial and Temporal Data Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 299-311.

Sun, C., Zhi-feng, Wu., Zhi-qiang Lv, Na, Yao, Jian-bing Wei (2013). Quantifying different types of urban growth and the change dynamic in Guangzhou using multi-temporal remote sensing data. Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinfp. p. 21.

UNO (2008). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision. New York: United Nations, 3–4.

Wang, L., Li, C. C., Ying, Q., et al. (2012). China’s urban expansion from 1990 to 2010 determined with satellite remote sensing. Chin Sci Bull, 57:2802-2812. Available at: (doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5235-7).

Zha, Y. J., Gao, and Ni, S. (2003). Use of Normalized Difference Built-Up Index in Automatically Mapping Urban Areas from TM Imagery”, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24, 583–594.

Zhang, J. F., Mauzerall, D. L., Zhu, T., et al. (2010). Environmental health in China: Progress towards clean air and safe water. Lancet, 375: 1110–1119.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

eISSN: 2230-7990