Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Effect of Halloysite Loading Rate on Mechanical Properties and Thermal Stability of HNT/Epoxy Nanocomposite

Shakun Srivastava, Anjaney Pandey


Halloysite nanotube (HNT) based polymer matrix composites were fabricated through casting using ultrasonication, followed by compression moulding method. In this research, HNT is taken into account as reinforcement, dispersed into the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy (LY 556). HNT/x (x=0 to 5 wt.%) composites were analysed according to the mechanical properties like tensile, flexural, hardness and impact. It has been found that thermal stability has been appreciably improved and calculated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus. In support, microstructure evaluation for fractured tensile specimen’s surfaces was carried out for reinforcement failure and its effect. Obtained results revealed that HNT/x (x=3 wt.%) provides the highest improvement with respect to other composite series (x=0 to 5 wt.%, ≠3 wt.%) for mechanical properties and thermal stability. In particular, 110.5% increase in impact strength was achieved and 55.4, 34.8, and 30.7% increase in ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength and thermal stability for HNT/x (x=3 wt.%) respectively. Subsequently, reinforcement in matrix also raises hardness significantly.

Keywords: Epoxy, HNT, tensile, thermal stability, microstructure

Full Text:



Yuan P, Tan D, Annabi-Bergaya F. Properties and Applications of Halloysite Nanotubes: Recent Research Advances and Future Prospects. Appl Clay Sci. 2015; 112 113: 75 93p.

Du M, Guo B, Jia D. Newly Emerging Applications of Halloysite Nanotubes: A Review. Polym Int. 2010; 59(5): 574 582p.

Rao S, Thomas J, Aziz A, et al. Manufacturing and Performance Evaluation of Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Honeycombs. J Compos Sci. 2019; 3: 1 13p.

Pasbakhsh P, De Silva R, Vahedi V, et al. Halloysite Nanotubes: Prospects and Challenges of Their Use as Additives and Carriers–A Focused Review. Clay Min. 2016; 51: 479 487p.

Hanif M, Jabbar F, Sharif S, et al. Halloysite Nanotubes as a New Drug-Delivery System: A Review. Clay Min. 2016; 51(3): 469 477p.

Tang Y, Ye L, Deng S, et al. Influences of Processing Methods and Chemical Treatments on Fracture Toughness of Halloysite–Epoxy Composites. Mater Des. 2012; 42: 471 477p.

Ayatollahi MR, Shadlou S, Shokrieh MM. Fracture Toughness of Epoxy/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nano-Composites under Bending and Shear Loading Conditions. Mater Des. 2011; 32(4): 2115 2124p.

Chhetri S, Samanta P, Murmu NC, et al. Anticorrosion Properties of Epoxy Composite Coating Reinforced by Molybdate-Intercalated Functionalized Layered Double Hydroxide. J Compos Sci. 2019; 3: 11 14p.

Azeez AA, Rhee KY, Park SJ, et al. Epoxy Clay Nanocomposites–Processing, Properties and Applications: A Review. Compos Part B: Eng. 2013; 45(1): 308 320p.

Ragosta G, Abbate M, Musto P, et al. Epoxy-Silica Particulate Nanocomposites: Chemical Interactions, Reinforcement and Fracture Toughness. Polymer. 2005; 46(23): 10506 10516p.

Shadlou S, Ahmadi-Moghadam B, Taheri F. The Effect of Strain-Rate on the Tensile and Compressive Behavior of Graphene Reinforced Epoxy/Nanocomposites. Mater Des. 2014; 59: 439 447p.

Ye Y, Chen H, Wu J, et al. High Impact Strength Epoxy Nanocomposites with Natural Nanotubes. Polymer. 2007; 48(21): 6426 8p.

Köhler AR, Som C, Helland A, et al. Studying the Potential Release of Carbon Nanotubes Throughout the Application Life Cycle. J Clean. Prod. 2008; 16(8 9): 927 937p.

Zeng QH, Yu AB, Lu GQ, et al. Clay-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Research and Commercial Development. J Nanosci Nanotech. 2005; 5(10): 1574 92p.

Joussein ES, Petit J, Churchman B, et al. Halloysite Clay Minerals: A Review. Clay Min. 2005; 40(4): 383 426p.

Gamini S, Vasu V, Bose S. Tube-like Natural Halloysite/Poly (Tetrafluoroethylene) Nanocomposites: Simultaneous Enhancement in Thermal and Mechanical Properties. Mater Res Express. 2017; 4(4): 045301 8p.

Yu S, Tong MN, Critchlow G. Use of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Epoxy as Adhesives to Join Aluminum Plates. Mater Des. 2010; 31(Suppl 1): 126 29p.

Saif MJ, Asif M, Naveed M, et al. Halloysite Reinforced Epoxy Composites with Improved Mechanical Properties. Pol J Chem Technol. 2016; 18(1): 133 135p.

Sun P, Liu G, Lv D, et al. Simultaneous Improvement in Strength, Toughness, and Thermal Stability of Epoxy/Halloysite Nanotubes Composites by Interfacial Modification. J Appl Polym Sci. 2016; 133(13): Art no. 43249.

Kumar S, Raju S, Mohana N, et al. Effects of Nanomaterials on Polymer Composites: An Expatiate View. Rev Adv Mater Sci. 2014; 38(1): 40 54p.

Ye Y, Chen H, Wu J, et al. High Impact Strength Epoxy Nanocomposites with Natural Nanotubes. Polymer. 2007; 48(21): 6426 6433p.

Mu M, Osswald S, Gogotsi Y, et al. An in situ Raman Spectroscopy Study of Stress Transfer between Carbon Nanotubes and Polymer. Nanotechology. 2009; 20(33): 335703 6p.

Ngo TD, Ton‐That MT, Hoa SV, et al. Curing Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites Based on Different Organoclays. Polym Eng Sci. 2007; 47(5): 649 661p.

Fu SY, Feng XQ, Lauke B, et al. Effects of Particle Size, Particle/Matrix Interface Adhesion and Particle Loading on Mechanical Properties of Particulate–Polymer Composites. Compos Part B: Eng. 2008; 39(6): 933 961p.

Deng S, Zhang J, Ye L, et al. Toughening Epoxies with Halloysite Nanotubes. Polymer. 2008; 49(23): 5119 27p.

Liu M, Guo B, Du M, et al. Properties of Halloysite Nanotube–Epoxy Resin Hybrids and the Interfacial Reactions in the Systems. Nanotechnology. 2007; 18(45): Article No. 455703 7p.

Lam CK, Cheung HY, Lau KT, et al. Cluster Size Effect in Hardness of Nanoclay/Epoxy Composites. Compos Part B: Eng. 2005; 36(3): 263 69p.

Garcia C, Trendafilova I, Zucchelli A. The Effect of Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on the Dynamic and Impact Behavior of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites. J Compos Sci. 2018; 2(3): 43 52p.

Kim S, Kim T, Lee DK, et al. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Zirconium Oxide Impregnated Halloysite Nanotubes. Coatings. 2017; 7(12): 231 238p.

Han W, Yu Y, Tang Y, et al. Nano-Halloysite Concentration Effects on Fracture Toughness of Diverse Epoxy Nanocomposites. Mater Perform Charact. 2014; 3(3): 506 518p.

Park JH, Lee HM, Chin IJ, et al. Intercalated Polypropylene/Clay Nanocomposite and Its Physical Characteristics. J Phys Chem Solids. 2008; 69(5 6): 1375 78p.

Vahedi V, Pasbakhsh P, Chai SP. Toward High Performance Epoxy/Halloysite Nanocomposites: New Insights Based on Rheological, Curing, and Impact Properties. Mater Des. 2015; 68: 42 53p.

Luo Z, Song H, Feng X, et al. Liquid crystalline phase Behavior and Sol–Gel Transition in Aqueous Halloysite Nanotube Dispersions. Langmuir. 2013; 29(40): 12358 66p.

Tang Y, Deng S, Ye L, et al. Effects of Unfolded and Intercalated Halloysites on Mechanical Properties of Halloysite-Epoxy Nanocomposites. Compos Part A: Appl Sci Manuf. 2011; 42(4): 345 54p.

Zeng S, Reyes C, Liu J, et al. Facile Hydroxylation of Halloysite Nanotubes for Epoxy Nanocomposite Applications.


  • There are currently no refbacks.