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A Review on Conventional and Alternative Methods for Defluoridation of Water

M. Madhukar, B. M. Sadashiva Murthy, T. H. Udayashankara

Abstract


Occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to anthropogenic influences on its natural formation and geological settings. Consuming fluoride has both beneficial and detrimental effects on dental and bone structures. This review article is aimed at facilitating precise information on the various methods applied to remove fluoride from water. The defluoridation techniques are divided into coprecipitation, adsorption ion exchange, contact precipitation, electro-coagulation and membrane process. The mechanism involved in each defluoridation technique is enumerated. The natural and synthetic materials employed by various researchers to remove fluoride are reviewed and tabulated in order to provide information on removal efficiency or capacity of the media

Keywords


Fluoride, adsorption, capacity, precipitation, electro-coagulation

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